Figure 4. Empirical Power Analysis. (A) Boxplot of the sensitivity (y-axis) to detect gold-standard aDMPs, defined at the full purified monocyte sample size n=1199, at random subsampling sizes (x-axis), as indicated. Each boxplot displays the sensitivity over 10 separate runs, in each run aDMPs were defined at the Bonferroni 0.05 level. (B) As A), but now defining aDMPs in each run as those with an FDR<0.05. Because the FDR estimates are more unstable, we performed 100 runs at each subsampling size. (C) As A), but now defining the gold-standard set of aDMPs by imposing a threshold on the effect size (2% DNAm change over 10 years), in addition to a Bonferroni adjusted P-value < 0.05. At each subsampling run, aDMPs were also defined using the same criterion and 10 runs were performed at each subsampling size. (D) As A), but now only using the threshold on the effect size to define gold-standard aDMPs and to define aDMPs each subsampling size. A total of 100 runs at each subsampling size were performed.