Figure 5. Meta-analysis of associations with total number of age-related conditions. Each panel reports a meta-analysis forest plot for combining regression coefficients between the comorbidity index and the DNAm-based biomarker (reported in the figure heading) across different strata, which are formed by racial group within cohort. (A) Meta analysis of the regression slope between AgeAccelGrim and the comorbidity index. Analogous results for (age-adjusted) DNAm based surrogate markers of (B) adrenomedullin (ADM), (C) beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), (D) cystatin C (Cystatin C), (E) growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), (F) leptin, (G) plasminogen activation inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), (H) tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and (I) smoking pack-years (PACKYRS). The individual study results were combined using fixed effect meta-analysis (reported in the panel heading). Cochran Q test for heterogeneity across studies (Het.). The effect sizes correspond to one year of age acceleration in panel A, one pack-year in panel I and one standard deviation in other panels for DNAm proteins. The estimate with the most significant meta P value is marked in red.