Figure 5. The effect of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid (TCQA) on fate, protein expression levels of differentiation markers, and cell proliferation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Three differentiation markers (β3-tubulin: neuron, myelin basic protein (MBP): oligodendrocyte, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP): astrocyte) were used. hNSCs were treated with differentiation medium with or without 10 μM TCQA. Expression levels of each differentiation marker were observed using confocal microscopy. Immunofluorescence images demonstrating the expression of β3-tubulin (A), MBP (B), and GFAP (C). hNSCs were treated with differentiation medium with or without 10 μM TCQA for 24 - 96 h. The expression level of each differentiation marker was determined by western blotting. Immunopositive bands of β3-tubulin (D), MBP (E), and GFAP (F) were quantified and expressed as a normalized value compared to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh). The cell number and cell viability were measured by ViaCount assay (G). * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 significance compared with control group.