Figure 7. The effect of 3,4,5-triCaffeoylquinic acid (TCQA) on intracellular Ca2+ levels, mitochondrial function, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels at very early phase of human neural stem cell (hNSCs) differentiation. hNSCs were pre-treated with Fluo4 AM for 30 min followed by treatment with growth medium or differentiation medium with or without TCQA 10 μM for 1–30 min. Time after differentiation and TCQA treatment, intracellular Ca2+ level was detected by measurement of fluorescence intensity (A). hNSCs were treated with growth medium or differentiation medium with or without 10 μM TCQA for 30–180 min. TCQA was treated with rhodamine 123 and detected mitochondrial function by measuring the fluorescence intensity (B). Intracellular ROS levels were detected by measuring fluorescence intensity of DCF oxidized by ROS. hNSCs were pre-treated with DCFH-DA for 1 h followed by treatment with growth medium or differentiation medium with or without 10 μM TCQA for 15–180 min (C). Data was set as % of undifferentiated control. Data were presented as mean ± SD. * P < 0.01, ** P < 0.01 Compared with undifferentiated control cells.