Editorial Volume 11, Issue 4 pp 1085—1086

Aortic stenosis: what is the role of aging processes?

Figure 1. Non-aging and aging pathways involved in calcified aortic stenosis. VCAM: vascular cell adhesion protein; ICAM: intercellular adhesion molecule; IL-6: interleukin-6; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; MMPs: matrixmetalloproteinases; TIMPs: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases; Lrp5: low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5; OPG: osteoprotegerin: RANK: receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B; RANKL: receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand; Lp(a): lipoprotein(a); Lp-PLA2: lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2; ATX: ataxin; eNOS; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; ROS: reactive oxygen species; FGF-23: fibroblast growth factor 23; PALMD: palmdelphin; PPAR-γ: peroxisome proliferator-activated repector gamma