Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 4 pp 1283—1304

Anti-inflammatory action of β-hydroxybutyrate via modulation of PGC-1α and FoxO1, mimicking calorie restriction

Figure 2. β-hydroxybutyrate (HB) decreases the expression of inflammatory proteins and activates FoxO1 expression in the kidney of aged rats. (A) Western blotting was performed to examine the protein levels of catalase, MnSOD, COX-2, and iNOS in the kidney of aged rats treated with HB and a caloric restriction (CR). Three independent experiments were performed, and similar results were obtained. (B) Expressions of genes encoding cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα were analyzed using qRT–PCR (n = 4 each). Results were normalized to the GAPDH levels. ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 vs. Young; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. Old. (C) Levels of reactive oxygen species and (D) ONOO- assessed in the kidney of aged rats treated with HB and CR. Three independent experiments were performed, and similar results were obtained. The data are expressed as the mean ± SEM (n = 4). ###p < 0.001 vs. Young; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. Old.