Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 7 pp 1918—1933

Sex differences in the aging human heart: decreased sirtuins, pro-inflammatory shift and reduced anti-oxidative defense


Figure 4. Female-specific aged-induced pro-inflammatory state. Protein and relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators in non-diseased hearts in young and old men (m) and women (w). Western blot analysis of (A) NF-κB p50, (B) FOXO1 and (C) phosphorylated FOXO1 and real-time PCR analysis of (D) IL-18, (E) IL-12 and (F) IL-10 mRNA expression. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM (n= 6-9/group). pFOXO1 was normalized to total FOXO1. Representative imaging of western blot analysis; the lanes were run on the same gel. All data were normalized to the corresponding control and expressed in relative units (r.u.).