Figure 1. NLRP3 inflammasome activation mediated by lipid crystals. Soluble lipids form crystals to activate NLRP3 inflammasome. The imbalance between SFAs and USFAs causes intracellular crystallization of SFAs. Similarly, oxidized LDL promotes formation of cholesterol crystals. Intracellularly formed or phagocytosed cholesterol crystals and SFA crystals cause lysosomal destabilization, which induces the leakage of lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B, resulting in the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.