Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 10 pp 2949—2967

Tryptophan-related dipeptides in fermented dairy products suppress microglial activation and prevent cognitive decline

Figure 2. Effects of WY peptides on inflammation induced by LPS. Mice intracerebroventricularly injected with 5 μg of LPS at day 0 were orally administered 0, 3, or 30 mg/kg WY peptide from day −2 to day 0. (A) Scheme of this experiment. (B, C, D) The levels of MIP-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the hippocampus of mice at 4 h after LPS injection, respectively. The hemisphere of the brain was subjected to Golgi staining. (E) Representative photomicrographs of Golgi-stained neurons in the CA1 of the hippocampus. (F) Number of dendritic spines per 10 μm in the CA1. Data are the mean ± SEM of 10 mice per group. p-values shown in the graph were calculated by performing Student t-test (LPS [−] vs. [+] at 0 mg/kg WY peptide) and one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett test. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01.