Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 10 pp 2949—2967

Tryptophan-related dipeptides in fermented dairy products suppress microglial activation and prevent cognitive decline

Figure 3. Effects of WY peptides on memory impairment induced by LPS. Mice intracerebroventricularly injected with 1.0 mg/kg of LPS at day 0 were orally administered 0, 3, or 30 mg/kg WY peptide from day −2 day to day 5. Mice were subject to the Y-maze test on day 3 and to NORT on days 4 and 5. (A, B) Spontaneous alterations and arm entries during 8 min of exploring in Y-maze to evaluate spatial memory. (C) Time spent exploring novel and familiar objects during 5 min of re-exploration as a percentage of the total time spent exploring objects to evaluate episodic memory. (D) Discrimination index [time spent with object A − time spent with object B] / [total time exploring both objects]. Data are the mean ± SEM of 10 mice per group. p-values shown in the graph were calculated by performing Student t-test (LPS [−] vs. [+] at 0 mg/kg WY peptide) and one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett test. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01.