Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 10 pp 2949—2967

Tryptophan-related dipeptides in fermented dairy products suppress microglial activation and prevent cognitive decline

Figure 5. Effects of WY peptides on inflammation and the activation of microglia in 5×FAD mice. For 3 months, 2.5-month-old transgenic 5×FAD and wild-type male mice were fed a diet with or without 0.05% w/w WY peptide. (A–C) The levels of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and IL-6 in the hippocampus, respectively. Data represent the means ± SEM of 12 wild-type mice, 11 control transgenic mice, and 12 transgenic mice fed with the diet containing WY peptide. (D) Characterization of CD11b-positive microglia in the brain isolated with MACS by flow cytometry. (E, F) Ratio of MIP-1α- and TNF-α-producing cells to CD11b-positive cells, respectively. (G, H) Expressions of CD80 and CD86 on CD11b-positive cells, respectively. M.F.I. is the mean fluorescent intensity. Data represent the means ± SEMs of 6 mice per group. p-values shown in the graph were calculated by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey–Kramer test. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.