Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 10 pp 3262—3279

Abnormal gut microbiota composition contributes to cognitive dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

Figure 7. Effects of fecal microbiota transplantation from CD and Non-CD mice on MWM performance by pseudo-germ-free mice. (A) Schedule for evaluation of MWM performance by pseudo-germ-free (host) mice transplanted with gut bacteria from diabetic mice. Host mice were treated with large doses of antibiotic solution for 14 consecutive days, and then orally treated with fecal microbiota from CD or Non-CD mice. MWM training trials were conducted from day 29 to 33, and the probe trial was performed on day 34. On day 35, fecal samples were collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. (B) Body weight (two-way ANOVA; Time: F2,12 = 76.89, p < 0.001; Group: F3,18 = 1.455, p > 0.05; Interaction: F6,36 = 13.85, p < 0.001). (C) Water intake (two-way ANOVA; Time: F2,10 = 1.016, p > 0.05; Group: F3,15 = 0.074, p > 0.05; Interaction: F6,30 = 0.133, p > 0.05). (D) Food intake (two-way ANOVA; Time: F2,10 = 0.319, p > 0.05; Group: F3,15 = 0.367, p > 0.05; Interaction: F6,30 = 0.445, p > 0.05). (E) Blood glucose levels (two-way ANOVA; Time: F2,12 = 0.433, p > 0.05; Group: F3,18 = 0.582, p > 0.05; Interaction: F6,36 = 0.357, p > 0.05). (F) Representative trace graphs of mouse swim paths in the MWM. (G) Escape latency (two-way ANOVA; Time: F4,24 = 16.13, p < 0.001; Group: F3,18 = 16.9, p < 0.001; Interaction: F12,72 = 1.462, p > 0.05). (H) Escape path length (two-way ANOVA; Time: F4,24 = 10.09, p < 0.001; Group: F3,18 = 4.763, p < 0.05; Interaction: F12,72 = 1.679, p > 0.05). (I) Platform crossings (one-way ANOVA; F3,24 = 21.4, p < 0.001). (J) Time spent in each quadrant (two-way ANOVA; Time: F3,18 = 4.359, p < 0.05; Group: F3,18 = 6.379, p < 0.01; Interaction: F9,54 = 4.466, p < 0.001). Data are shown as mean ± SEM (n = 8 individual samples/group). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 or ***P < 0.001. ANOVA: analysis of variance; CD: cognitive dysfunction; CONT: control; MWM: Morris water maze; N.S.: not significant; SEM: standard error of the mean.