Figure 2. Transplantation of MSCs induces M2-polarization of macrophages. (A–B) MSCs were transplanted into MI mouse model for 4 weeks, followed by immunostaining for F4/80, a pan-macrophage marker, or CD86, a M1-specific macrophage marker, in the injured heart, shown by representative images (A), and by quantification (B). (C–D) The injured heart at 4 weeks after transplantation was digested, and the dissociated cells were analyzed by F4/80 and CD163, a M2-specific macrophage marker, shown by representative flow charts (C), and by quantification (D). Y-axis is F4/80 staining, and the X-axis is CD163 staining. (E) ELISA for arginase and iNOS in cultured macrophages, with/without presence of MSCs, and with/without presence of TNF-α. *p<0.05. NS: non-significant. N=5. Scale bars are 100 μm.