Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 12 pp 4107—4124

Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorate neuronal oxidative damage by inhibiting GSK-3β-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in an experimental model of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

Figure 2. GSPs effectively counteracted the cognitive impairments in mice subjected to ICV injection of STZ. (A) Schematic diagram of animal study design. (B) The escape latency of the training acquisition trials for 5 consecutive days in Morris water maze (MWM). (C) The target cross number of the probe test in MWM. (D) The time in target quadrant in the probe test in MWM. (E) The swimming speed in the probe test in MWM. (F) The fall latency in the rotarod test. *P < 0.05 vs Sham; #P < 0.05 vs STZ, n=10.