Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 12 pp 4107—4124

Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorate neuronal oxidative damage by inhibiting GSK-3β-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in an experimental model of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

Figure 6. GSPs improved the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP and the activity of CcO in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with 25 ug/mL or 50 ug/mL GSPs significantly increased STZ decreased levels of MMP (A), ATP (D) and the activity of CcO (G) in primary cortical neurons. Administration of high dosage of GSPs significantly increased STZ decreased levels of MMP (B), ATP (E) and the activity of CcO (H) in the cerebral cortex. Intake of high dosage of GSPs significantly increased levels of MMP (C), ATP level (F) and the activity of CcO (I) in the hippocampus. *P < 0.01 vs CON or Sham; #P < 0.01 vs STZ, n=4-6.