Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 12 pp 4107—4124

Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorate neuronal oxidative damage by inhibiting GSK-3β-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in an experimental model of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

Figure 7. GSPs blocked STZ-induced mitochondrial superoxide production and mitochondrial swelling. (A and B) Representative fluorescent staining of MitoSOX Red in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus CA1 region of mice. (C and D) Quantification analysis showed changes of area occupied by fluorescent staining. (E) Comparison of the mitochondrial swelling among different groups. *P < 0.01 vs Sham; #P < 0.01 vs STZ, n=6.