Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 12 pp 4107—4124

Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorate neuronal oxidative damage by inhibiting GSK-3β-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in an experimental model of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

Figure 8. GSPs improved STZ-reduced ratios of p-PI3K/ PI3K, p-Akt/Akt and p- GSK-3β/GSK-3β in vitro and in vivo. (AC) Representative immunoblot bands for p-PI3K, PI3K, p-Akt, Akt, p-GSK-3β (Ser9), GSK-3β and β-actin in primary cortical neurons, the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, respectively. (DL) Quantification analysis of immunoblot bands. Protein expression levels were normalized to β-actin. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs CON or Sham; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 vs STZ, n=4-6.