Figure 2. Aging-related increase in ER stress and insulin signaling. Western blotting was performed to detect the protein level of factors involved in ER stress, insulin signaling, and Akt signaling. (A) ER stress markers (p-IRE, IRE, p-PERK, PERK, p-JNK, and JNK) (B) insulin signaling factors (pSer-IRS1, pTyr-IRS1, IRS1) (C) aging-related increase in phospho-Akt level. β-actin was the loading control of the cytosolic fractions. Results of one-factor ANOVA: #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, and ###p < 0.001 vs. 6 months.