Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 12 pp 4183—4197

Alpha-ketoglutarate extends Drosophila lifespan by inhibiting mTOR and activating AMPK

Figure 3. AKG activates AMPK signaling and reduces ATP and the ATP/ADP ratio. (A) Relative mRNA levels of genes downstream of AMPK (ns = nonsignificant, p > 0.05; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001; two-tailed Student’s t-test). (B) AKG-supplementation decreases ATP content in fruit flies (**p < 0.01, two-tailed Student’s t-test). (C) AKG-supplementation decreases the ATP/ADP ratio (**p < 0.01, two-tailed Student’s t-test). (D) Relative mRNA levels of genes upstream of AMPK (ns = nonsignificant, p > 0.05; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001; two-tailed Student’s t-test).