Figure 4. AKG supplementation increases autophagy. (A) Relative mRNA expression of genes downstream and upstream of mTOR (*p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01, two-tailed Student’s t-test). (B) Relative mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001, two-tailed Student’s t-test). (C) Phagosome staining. Representative fluorescence images of fly midguts stained with LysoTracker Red. Midguts of control flies (upper image) and AKG-treated flies (lower image) are shown.