Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 14 pp 5258—5275

Glycation of macrophages induces expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduces phagocytic efficiency

Figure 1. Macrophage differentiation and polarization. Monocytes can be differentiated into macrophages (resting, M0) using the differentiation agent 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). M0 macrophages can be further polarized into M1 (pro-inflammatory, classically activated) phenotype using LPS and IFN-γ or into M2 (anti-inflammatory, alternatively activated) using IL-4 and IL-13 treatment. Grey boxes beside polarization phenotypes show the cytokines that are mainly secreted by respective phenotype.