Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 17 pp 6638—6656

Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression in GABAergic neurons controls behavior, metabolism, healthy aging and lifespan

Figure 1. Expression of Dlx5 in adult brain. (AC) Sections from adult brain of Dlx5lacZ/+ mice. β-D-galactosidase activity, visualized as dark blue dots, is evident in the cortex (A), hypothalamus (B) and striatum (C). (DD’’) Adult brain somatosensory cortex from Dlx5lacZ/+ mice was double stained with anti-β-D-galactosidase antibodies (green) and antibodies against major GABAergic neuronal subclasses (Parvalbumin (Pvalb), Calretinin (CR) and Somatostatin (Sst)) (red). Arrows point to examples of double-stained neurons; arrowhead indicates a β-D-galactosidase-negative/Pvalb-positive neuron. Bar: 250 μm A-C; 25 μm D, D’’. (E) (Upper panels) t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) plots showing the relationship among 967 Dlx5-positive single cells isolated from the frontal cortex. The seven identified clusters are color-coded and expression of selected markers for different classes of cortical GABAergic neurons is presented (Gad2, Vgat, Sst, Pvalb, Htr3a, Npy, CR). All Dlx5-positive clusters are Gad2 and Vgat-positive, all major GABAergic subtypes include Dlx5-positive neurons. (Lower panels) Violin plots showing the normalized expression distribution of selected markers in the different Dlx5-positive clusters.