Figure 1. Expression of Dlx5 in adult brain. (A–C) Sections from adult brain of Dlx5lacZ/+ mice. β-D-galactosidase activity, visualized as dark blue dots, is evident in the cortex (A), hypothalamus (B) and striatum (C). (D–D’’) Adult brain somatosensory cortex from Dlx5lacZ/+ mice was double stained with anti-β-D-galactosidase antibodies (green) and antibodies against major GABAergic neuronal subclasses (Parvalbumin (Pvalb), Calretinin (CR) and Somatostatin (Sst)) (red). Arrows point to examples of double-stained neurons; arrowhead indicates a β-D-galactosidase-negative/Pvalb-positive neuron. Bar: 250 μm A-C; 25 μm D, D’’. (E) (Upper panels) t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) plots showing the relationship among 967 Dlx5-positive single cells isolated from the frontal cortex. The seven identified clusters are color-coded and expression of selected markers for different classes of cortical GABAergic neurons is presented (Gad2, Vgat, Sst, Pvalb, Htr3a, Npy, CR). All Dlx5-positive clusters are Gad2 and Vgat-positive, all major GABAergic subtypes include Dlx5-positive neurons. (Lower panels) Violin plots showing the normalized expression distribution of selected markers in the different Dlx5-positive clusters.