Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 16 pp 5924—5942

Cognitive impairment in heart failure is associated with altered Wnt signaling in the hippocampus


Figure 6. Memory flexibility was impaired in heart failure (HF) rats. (A) Representative cartoon showing the rat and different platform positions within the pool. (B) Representative trajectory heat maps obtained from one Sham rat and one HF rat during day 1 and day 4 of memory flexibility test. Note that during this test the platform position changed every day of the test. Pseudocolor intensity indicate the time latency the rat remained swimming in the pool searching for the platform. Contrarily to day 1, 2 and 4, at day 3 HF animals showed less latency in the platform position. (C) Average trials between day 1 and 4. Note that HF rats needed more trials to accomplish the task compared to Sham rats. (D) Summary data showing the number trials in each experimental day. (E, F) Summary data of the sum of latencies and paths length from each trial by day. Note that at day 3, HF rats display an increase test duration and distance travelled compared to Sham animals. (G) Average speed was not different in all experimental days between Sham and HF rats. Values are means ± S.E.M. *, p<0.05, Unpaired t-test; #, p<0.05 vs. Sham; two-way ANOVA following Holm Sidak test. n=6 rats per group.