Figure 2. Alteration of extracellular matrix by knockdown of CACNA1s, CACNB1 and CACNG1 genes in hVFFs. CACNA1s, CACNB1 and CACNG1 genes are effectively knocked down (A). CACNA1S knockdown cells significantly inhibit the synthesis of collagen I and III protein compared to CACNB1 and CACNG1 knock down cells (B). However, the synthesis of hyaluronic acid and elastin were not affected by knockdown of CACNA1s, CACNB1 and CACNG1 genes (C and D). These knockdown cells did not show a significant change in the expression of MMP-1, 2, 8, and 9 (E). Relative gene expression (fold change) was normalized to the respective housekeeping gene (18s RNA) controls. MMPs, matrix metalloproteinases. One-way ANOVA test; NS as no significant, *p<0.05, and **p<0.01.