Figure 5. Alteration of CACNA1s gene and ECM protein with verapamil treatment in hVFFs. After the verapamil treatment for 6 h in hVFFs, the expression of CACNA1S decreases in RT-PCR as dose-dependent manner (A). The synthesis of collagen I alpha 1 and 2 and collagen III in hVFFs decrease according to the concentration of verapamil (B). However, there are no effect on the synthesis of HA or elastin (C and D). MMP-1 and -8 are increased the expression and activity as the concentration increased (E and F). However, there was no change in the expression of MMP-2 and -9 (E). Relative gene expression (fold change) was normalized to the respective housekeeping gene (18s RNA) controls. HAS, hyaluronic acid synthase. MMPs, matrix metalloproteinases. One-way ANOVA test; NS as no significant, *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001.