Figure 6. Summary of our study. CACNA1S, CACNB1, and CACNG1 are significantly increased in the NGS study and immunohistochemistry in the lamina propria of aging vocal folds. The synthesis of collagen I and III of hVFFs with si-CACNA1S are reduced significantly. When verapamil is treated in hVFFs, the expression of CACNA1S and the synthesis of collagen I and III are decreased and the expression of MMP-1 and 8 are increased. Voltage gaited calcium channel, especially CACNA1S, has promising potential as a novel therapeutic target for remodeling ECM of lamina propria.