Figure 1. Cognitive function and social behaviors in young mice after multiple sevoflurane exposures during the neonatal period. (A) 3% sevoflurane 2 h daily on postnatal day (PND) 6, 8, and 10, arterial blood test on PND 10, behavioral test on PND 31–36, and RNA-seq analysis of hippocampal tissues on PND 37. (B) Morris water maze (testing phase on PND 36) showing longer mean distance from the original platform area and fewer platform-crossing times in the sevoflurane group, without significant difference in time spent in the fourth quadrant. (C) Morris water maze (training phase on PND 31–35) showing longer escape latency in the sevoflurane group. (D) Social interaction test on habituation showing no significant difference in time of sniffing at the left and right empty enclosures for both groups. (E) Social interaction test on sociability showing that both groups spent more time sniffing at Stranger 1 than at the empty enclosure. (F) Social interaction test on preference for social novelty showing that the control group, but not sevoflurane group, spent more time sniffing at Stranger 2 than Stranger 1. n = 10. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 for the comparisons shown.