Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 19 pp 8642—8663

Decreased levels of circulating trimethylamine N-oxide alleviate cognitive and pathological deterioration in transgenic mice: a potential therapeutic approach for Alzheimer’s disease

Figure 5. Age-related changes of hemostasis and circulating trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels in WT and APP/PS1 mice. Mean count of WT and APP/PS1 mice platelets (A). Bleeding time measured after amputating the tail tip of WT and APP/PS1 mice (B). Circulating TMAO concentration in the plasma of WT and APP/PS1 mice (C). **P<0.01, ***P<0.001, versus the age-matched WT mice, aP<0.05, versus 3-month-old syngeneic mice, bP<0.05, versus 6-month-old syngeneic mice, cP<0.05, versus 9-month-old syngeneic mice by two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance with Tukey multiple comparisons tests. All values are means ± S.D. Correlation with the TMAO levels in plasma and cognitive performance/pathology index of WT and APP/PS1 mice, as calculated via Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (D). Correlation between TMAO levels and cognitive performance/pathology index of WT and APP/PS1 mice (E). X and Y axis was derived by R and -Log (P), respectively. DS means the degree of senescence, ORM means object recognition memory, SLM means spatial learning and memory, AA means active avoidance, LTP means long-term potentiation. n=10.