Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 19 pp 8642—8663

Decreased levels of circulating trimethylamine N-oxide alleviate cognitive and pathological deterioration in transgenic mice: a potential therapeutic approach for Alzheimer’s disease

Figure 9. Effects of DMB on the levels of clusterin in plasma and inflammatory status in the hippocampus of WT and APP/PS1 mice. The concentration of clusterin in plasma (A). Heat map of cytokine concentrations (z-score) in the hippocampus (B). * represents a significant difference between WT and APP/PS1 mice, # represents a significant difference between APP/PS1 mice and APP/PS1 mice treated with DMB. The concentration of interleukin (IL)-2 (C), IL-17 (D) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) (E) in the hippocampus. ***P<0.001, versus the WT+ NT mice, #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, ###P<0.001, versus the APP/PS1+ NT mice, $P<0.05, versus the WT+DMB mice by one-way ANOVA analysis followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test. All values are means ± S.D. n=10. NT means no treatment, IL means interleukin, IP means interferon-induced protein, G-CSF means granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, GM-CSF means granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TNF-α means tumor necrosis factor α, IFNγ means interferon-γ, MCP-1 means monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES means regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted factor, MIP-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β.