Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 22 pp 10167—10182

Tissue plasminogen activator disrupts the blood-brain barrier through increasing the inflammatory response mediated by pericytes after cerebral ischemia

Figure 3. Rt-PA increased inflammatory factor expression on pericytes after OGD/R. (A) Pericyte survival was measured 12 and 24 h after reoxygenation following OGD for 4 h with or without 50 μg/ml rt-PA treatment; n = 6 for each group. Data represent the mean ± sd *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. (BD) The mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and MCP-1 was determined after OGD and reoxygenation for 12 h and 24 h with or without treatment with 50 μg/ml rt-PA; n = 4 for each group. Data represent the mean ± sd, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. (E, F) The concentrations of TNF-α and MCP-1 secreted from the pericytes after OGD and reoxygenation for 12 h and 24 h with or without 50 μg/ml rt-PA treatment; n = 3–4 for each group. Data represent the mean ± sd, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. (G, H) Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of TNF-a and MCP-1 on pericytes in the sham-treated mice and mice at 1 d after I/R treated with or without 9 mg/kg rt-PA; scale bar: 50 μm; n = 3 for each group. Data represent the mean ± sd, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. (I) The TEER were measured at 1 d after treatment with 50 μg/ml rt-PA or 40 μg/kg etanercept in combination with 50 ug/ml rt-PA after OGD/R; n = 3 for each group. Data represent the mean ± sd, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. (J) The leakage of FITC-dextran in the brains was measured at 1 d after treatment with 9 mg/kg rt-PA or 200 μg/kg etanercept in combination with 9 mg/kg rt-PA after I/R treatment; scale bar: 50 μm; n = 3 for each group.