Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 22 pp 10513—10531

Astaxanthin protects against osteoarthritis via Nrf2: a guardian of cartilage homeostasis

Figure 9. Schematic diagram of Ast-mediated protective effects on cartilage homeostasis. Ast attenuated ECM degradation of OA chondrocytes through the Nrf2 signaling, and ameliorated the IL-1β-induced inflammatory response and ECM degradation via blockade of MAPK signaling. In addition, Ast alleviated TNF-α-induced ECM degradation and chondrocyte apoptosis by inhibiting the NF-kB signaling, suppressed TBHP-induced oxidative stress, and subsequently reduced chondrocyte apoptosis.