Figure 3. Effect of extracellular vesicles from plasma on PBMC viability and cytokine secretion in vitro. PBMCs from donors of all age ranges were cultured for 72h in the presence or not of PHA or/and plasma EVs and then analyzed by flow cytometry. (A) Cell viability is reduced after stimulation with PHA, while the coculture with EVs improves viability. (B) The positive effect of plasma EVs on cell viability is stronger in cells from adults (20–49 years) than aged (80-101 years) individuals. (C) The analysis of conditioned media by luminex showed a reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β and an increased secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 by stimulated cells cocultured with EVs compared to stimulated cells without EVs.