Figure 4. T cell activation under PHA stimulation and the effect of plasma extracellular vesicles. PBMCs from donors of all age ranges were cultured for 72h in the presence of PHA and plasma EVs and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Wells without EVs were taken as reference for fold change calculation and Wilcoxon tests. (A) The presence of EVs from adult donors resulted in promotion of CD4 cell activation, an effect that decreases gradually with EV donor age (in red, Jonckheere test ****). (B) In a similar way, CD8 cells cocultured with EVs from adults get more activated, but this effect decreases with EV age (in red, Jonckheere test ****). Age range is years.