Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 23 pp 11391—11415

Melatonin protects blood-brain barrier integrity and permeability by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9 via the NOTCH3/NF-κB pathway

Figure 1. Characterization of primary cultures by immunofluorescence microscopy. Human brain microvascular pericytes showed positive immunostaining for α-SMA and NG2 but were negative for endothelial or astrocytic markers. Endothelial cells expressed the von Willebrand factor (vWF), while astrocytes were positive for GFAP. Scale bar = 50 μm.