Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 23 pp 11624—11639

Stimulation of MMP-9 of oral epithelial cells by areca nut extract is related to TGF-β/Smad2-dependent and –independent pathways and prevented by betel leaf extract, hydroxychavicol and melatonin

Figure 3. Role of TAK1 activation in ANE-induced MMP-9 expression/secretion. (A) Stimulation of p-TAK1 activation of SAS cells by ANE. (upper) solvent control, and (lower) SAS cells treated by ANE (800 μg/ml) for 30 min. Pictures of p-TAK1 fluorescence (left) & merged with DAPI (right). Effects of 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol (1 and 5 μM) on (B) ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced MMP-9 mRNA expression of SAS cells as analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. One representative result was shown, and (C) ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced MMP-9 secretion in SAS cells as analyzed by ELISA. (D) Effect of ANE with/without 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol on the viability of SAS cells (as % of control, 100%), (E) ANE-induced MMP-9 mRNA expression of GK as analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.