Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 23 pp 11624—11639

Stimulation of MMP-9 of oral epithelial cells by areca nut extract is related to TGF-β/Smad2-dependent and –independent pathways and prevented by betel leaf extract, hydroxychavicol and melatonin

Figure 6. Effect of PBL, HC and aspirin on ANE-induced MMP-9 secretion. Effect of (A) PBL (500 and 1000 μg/ml), (B) HC (50 and 100 μM) and (C) aspirin (100 and 200 μM) on ANE (800 μg/ml)-induced MMP-9 secretion in SAS oral cancer epithelial cells. Results were expressed as Mean ± SE (pg/ml). (D) Effect of PBL on ANE-induced MMP-9 expression, and effect of (E) PBL and (F) HC on ANE-induced changes of cell viability of SAS cells (as % of control, Mean ± SE).