Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 23 pp 11624—11639

Stimulation of MMP-9 of oral epithelial cells by areca nut extract is related to TGF-β/Smad2-dependent and –independent pathways and prevented by betel leaf extract, hydroxychavicol and melatonin

Figure 8. Proposed signaling mechanisms of ANE-induced MMP-9 expression/ secretion of oral mucosal cells, contribution to oral carcinogenesis and its prevention by PBL, HC and melatonin.