Figure 7. Ex-4 treatment reduces MGO-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in rat mesangial cells. Rat mesangial cells were treated either with 1 mM MGO, 10 nM Ex-4, or both for 10 h after synchronization with 1% fetal bovine serum for 13-16 h. (A) TNF-α mRNA level, (B) MCP-1 mRNA level, (C) IL6 mRNA level in rat mesangial cells. Data are shown as the means ± SEM. *p < 0.05 and CON, #p < 0.05 and MGO, n = 3–4.