Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 1 pp 628—649

Concomitant memantine and Lactobacillus plantarum treatment attenuates cognitive impairments in APP/PS1 mice

Figure 1. Effects of choline supplementation on cognitive declines in C57BL/6J mice. The spontaneous locomotor activity (A), nest building score (B), preferential index after training 1 hour (C) and 24 hours (D) in the phase of novel object test, latency in the learning phase (E) and time spent in target quadrant in the testing phase (F) of Morris water maze test, successful avoidance times in the learning (G) and testing phase (H) of shuttle box test. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001, versus the C57BL/6J mice, by unpaired Student's t-tests. All values are mean ± S.D. n=30.