Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 1 pp 628—649

Concomitant memantine and Lactobacillus plantarum treatment attenuates cognitive impairments in APP/PS1 mice


Figure 10. Effects of L. plantarum supplementation on the levels of clusterin in plasma and inflammatory status in the hippocampus of WT and APP/PS1 mice. The concentration of plasma clusterin (A). Heat map of cytokine concentrations (z-score) in the hippocampus (B). * represents a difference between WT and APP/PS1 mice, # represents a difference between APP/PS1 mice and treated APP/PS. The concentration of interleukin (IL)-2 (C), IL-17 (D) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) (E) in the hippocampus. ***P<0.001, versus the WT mice, by unpaired Student's t-tests. #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, ###P<0.001, versus the APP/PS1 mice, by one-way ANOVA analysis followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test. All values are mean ± S.D. n=15. WT=wild type; Mem=memantine; LP=L. plantarum. IL=interleukin; IP=interferon-induced protein; GM-CSF=granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IFNγ=interferon-γ; TNF-α=tumor necrosis factor α; MCP-1=monocyte chemotactic protein-1; RANTES=regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted factor; MIP-1β=macrophage inflammatory protein-1β; G-CSF=granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.