Figure 5. Effect of L. plantarum supplementation on cognitive impairments in APP/PS1 mice. APP/PS1 mice were treated with memantine, L. plantarum, or memantine+ L. plantarum. The preferential index after training 1 hour (A) in the phase of novel object test, latency in the learning phase (B), latency (C), time spent in target quadrant (D) and number of crossing plate (E) in the testing phase of Morris water maze test, successful avoidance times in testing phase (F) of shuttle box test. **P<0.01, ***P<0.001, versus the WT mice, by unpaired Student's t-tests. #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, ###P<0.001, versus the APP/PS1 mice, by one-way ANOVA analysis followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test or a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey multiple comparisons test. All values are mean ± S.D. n=15. WT=wild type; Mem=memantine; LP=L. plantarum.