Figure 9. Effects of L. plantarum supplementation on TMAO synthesis in APP/PS1 mice. The concentration of TMA (A), TMAO (B) in plasma, and FMO3 (C) in the liver. Liver FMO activity, assessed as described in Materials and Methods (D). ***P<0.001, versus the WT mice, by unpaired Student's t-tests. #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, ###P<0.001, versus the APP/PS1 mice, by one-way ANOVA analysis followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test. All values are mean ± S.D. n=15. WT=wild type; Mem=memantine; LP=L. plantarum.