Figure 4. Detecting mutations in normal blood cells from healthy donors. (A) Distribution of selected mutant genes in the seven healthy donors. (B) Wayne diagram of the distribution of mutated genes in CRC patients and healthy donors. (C) Scatter plot of the mutated genes in CRC patients and healthy donors. (D) Schematic diagram. Stem cells in tissues proliferate over years and accumulate mutations. The majority of cells (including stem cells) carry mutant genes (Left). DNA replication and repair and environmental factors (UV, radiation, etc.) lead to the transformation of mutant stem cells into cancer stem cells, while environmental selection and epistasis influence mutations in the tumor (Middle). After continuous iterative selection, cancer stem cells eventually develop into malignant tumors (Right).