Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 3 pp 2169—2225

Identification of 34 genes conferring genetic and pharmacological risk for the comorbidity of schizophrenia and smoking behaviors

Figure 4. The cis-acting regulatory effects of risk-associated SNPs in 34 common genes on DNA methylation and gene expression. (A) Schematic of risk-associated SNPs (P < 0.05) compiled from two large-scale meta-GWASs on SCZ (N = 79,845) and smoking behaviors (N = 74,053) and 3,483 risk-associated SNPs in 34 genes shared by SCZ and smoking for cis-meQTL and cis-eQTL analysis. The SNPs in strong LD with risk-associated SNPs (LD cutoff r2 ≥ 0.5) were generated according to the 1000 Genome European Phase 3 panel as reference. (B) Venn diagram of risk-associated SNPs (P < 0.05) for SCZ, CPD, ever smoking, former smoking, and age at smoking initiation. (C) Plot shows the 21 promising genes with SNPs had cis-regulatory roles in both DNA methylation and gene expression.