Figure 1. Isoproterenol treatment resulted in decreased cardiac function. Cardiac function was determined by echocardiography in 8-week-old mice infused with isoproterenol. The interventricular septum thickness at end-diastole (IVSD) (A) end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular internal diameter (LVIDd and LVIDs) (B, C) end-diastolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWd) (D) and fractional shortening (FS) (E) were determined from the M-mode images. ctr: control, Iso: isoproterenol. Data are the mean ± SEM. n= 3 per group.