Figure 1. Relative changes of involved indicators. (A–E) denoted the relative changes of mean lifespan, bend frequency, pumping rate, lipofuscin level and stress resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans in hormesis groups compared to control groups, while (F) represented the combined relative change of each indicator based on random-effect model. The number of worms included in each indicator was shown in its corresponding graph. Data were presented by mean with 95% CIs.