Review Volume 12, Issue 4 pp 4010—4039

Efficacy of probiotics on cognition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in adults with Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment — a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Figure 2. Summary of risk of bias assessment: judgments of the review authors on each risk of bias item for the included studies (n = 5). One study was rated as “low risk of bias”, and the other four were assessed as “moderate risk of bias.” No study was judged as “high risk of bias”.