Review Volume 12, Issue 4 pp 4010—4039

Efficacy of probiotics on cognition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in adults with Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment — a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Figure 3. Forest plot showing the standardized mean difference (SMD) in cognitive enhancement, comparing the probiotics group versus the control group. Weights were assigned according to the number of subjects and SD using STATA 12. A fixed-effects model was applied to the meta-analysis. The sizes of the data markers represent the weight of each study, and the diamond indicates the overall estimated effect.