Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 4 pp 3791—3806

Baicalin ameliorates neuropathology in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model mice by remodeling the gut microbiota

Figure 1. Repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion causes cognitive, memory, and long-term potentiation (LTP) decline in mice. (AC) The novel object response test results show (A) preferential index after 1h training and latency in the (B) learning and (C) testing phases for control and repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model group mice. (D, E) Morris water maze test results show (D) time spent in the target quadrant and (E) the number of crossing plate in the testing phase for control and repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model group mice. (F) Population spike amplitudes and LTP induction is shown for control and repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model mice. (G) The average population spike amplitudes are shown for the control and repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model group mice. (H) Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data from behavioral and electrophysiological experiments in the control and repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is shown. Each dot represents one mouse. (I) The mean PCA scores with or without choline are shown for control and repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model group mice. Note: * denotes P<0.05, ** denotes P<0.01, and *** denotes P<0.001 in comparison with control group mice. The statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test or a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey multiple comparisons test. All the values are expressed as means ± S.D. Each group had 15 mice (n=15).