Figure 2. The effects of acetate on systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation after surgery (n=5-8). The protein levels of TNF-α (A), IL-1β (B) and IL-6 (C) in the systemic circulation 6 h post-surgery. Graphs display the expression of TNF-α (D), IL-1β (E) and IL-6 (F) in the hippocampus at different time points. Data are expressed as the mean±SEM, *P<0.05 vs. the normal and acetate groups, #P<0.05 vs. the surgery group. ACE: acetate.